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موضوع: Persian traditional Music

  1. #1
    Leon آواتار ها
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    پیش فرض Persian traditional Music


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    traditional instrument

    Setar




    The ancestry of the setar can be traced to the ancient tanbur of pre-Islamic Persia.
    It is made from thin mulberry wood and its fingerboard has twenty-five or twenty-six adjustable gut frets.
    Setar is literally translated as ``three strings''; however, in its present form, it has four strings and it is suspected that setar initially had only three strings.
    Because of its delicacy and intimate sonority, the setar is the preferred instrument of Sufi mystics

    Setar solo 1
    496k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]

    Setar solo 2
    305k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    Setar solo 3
    620k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    Setar & [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    249k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]


    Tar



    Belonging to the lute family, the tar appeared in its present form in the middle of the eighteenth century. The body is a double-bowl shape carved from mulberry wood, with a thin membrane of stretched lamb-skin covering the top. The long fingerboard has twenty-six to twenty-eight adjustable gut frets, and there are three double courses of strings. Its range is about two and one- half octaves, and is played with a small brass plectrum.

    Tar solo 1
    244k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    Tar solo 2
    318k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    Tar solo 3
    161k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]





    Ney


    The Ney, which is probably the oldest pitched instrument known to man, is an oblique rim blown reed flute with five finger holes in front and one thumb hole in the back. One of the principle instruments of Traditional Persian Music, the ney has a range of two and a half octaves. The upper end is covered by a short brass cylinder which is anchored in the tiny space between the upper incisives of the player. Sound is produced when a stream of air is directed by the tongue toward the opening of the instrument. In this way, sound is produced behind the upper teeth, inside the mouth, which gives the ney a distinct timbre than that of the sound produced by the lips on

    Ney solo
    248k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]

    Daf



    The daf is a type of frame drum that is depicted in many Persian miniatures and has reliefs from centuries ago. Although it appears at first sight to be a relatively simple instrument, the daf has the potential of producing intricate rhythmic patterns and sounds. The daf is equipped with metal rings on the inside which add a jingle effect to the sound. The frame is covered with goat-skin.

    Daf solo 1
    252k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    Daf solo 2
    50k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    Daf & [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] 1
    345k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    Daf & [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] 2
    317k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]

    Kamancheh



    The kamancheh is the traditional classical bowed lute of Persian classical music and dates back to antiquity. It has a small, hollowed hardwood body with a thin stretched fish-skin membrane. Its neck is cylindrical, and it has four strings. Often known as the „spiked fiddle”, because of the spike protruding from its lower end, it is played vertically in the manner of the European viol. The bowstrings are pulled by the player which accommodates subtle tone variations. It is suspected that the fourth string was added in the early twentieth century as the result of the introduction of western violin to Iran.

    Kamanche solo 1
    435k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    Kamanche solo 2
    381k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]


    Santur



    The santur is a three-octave wooden-hammered dulcimer with seventy-two strings which are arranged on adjustable tuning pegs in eighteen quadruple sets, nine (bronze) in the low register, and nine (steel) in the middle register.
    The Santur can be made from various kinds of wood (walnut, rosewood, betel palm, etc.) depending on the desired sound quality. The front and the back of the instrument are connected by soundposts whose positions play an important role in the sound quality of the instrument.
    Although the santur is very old, it was neither depicted in miniatures, nor presented in any other medium until the nineteenth century.

    Santur solo
    360k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]

    Tombak



    The tombak is a chalice-shaped drum carved from solid mulberry wood. It is covered at the wide end by a membrane of lamb or goat skin. The technique of this instrument uses both hands and consists of rolling and snapping the fingers in various ways. The rich variety of tones and textures on this instrument allows the player to punctuate and ornament the melodic phrases as well as create rhythmical patterns. `Tom' and `bak' are onomatopoeias for two basic strokes, one low (tom) in the center, and one high (bak) on the side of the membrane.

    Tombak & [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید][ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید][ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]

    Ud_ Barbat



    The Barbat, also known as the Ud, is a short-neck fretless lute with five double-courses of strings tuned in fourths and traditionally played with an eagle's quill. The barbat is the ancestor of the European lute, and functions as a bass instrument.

    Ud solo
    221k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]


    Tanbur



    The tanbur is the ancestor to most long-necked, plucked stringed instruments. Its pear shaped belly is normally carved out of one piece of mullberry wood with a long neck and fourteen gut frets. Some modern tanburs are made of bent ribs of mulberry wood. The sound board, 3-4 millimeters thick, is also made of mulberry wood which has numerous small holes for better resonance.
    The tanbur has a unique playing technique by which the strings are strummed with the fingers of the right hand to produce a very full and even tremolo called shorr (literally meaning the pouring of water). This technique along with various kinds of plucking, usually with the index and pinky fingers, enables the musicians to produce different effects and various rhythmic accentuations which imitate the natural sounds of their environment such as a running stream, a water fall, a bird chirping or a horses' gallop, all translated into musical rhythms and sounds.
    The ancient tanbur used to have two silk or in some instances gut strings tuned in 4th or 5th, similar to the dotar (meaning two stringed), its close relative widely used in Eastern Iran. It has also been regarded as the tanbur of Khorasan in literary texts. Although these two instruments share a similar history and are basically the same, they have developed their own repertoires, playing techniques and functions. According to the master instrument maker Ustad Mehdi Kamalian the name tanbur is taken from the word tandur or tanur, meaning clay oven, as early instrument makers dried tree trunks chosen to carve the belly in tanours for several hours in order to perfect the sound. Gradually the instrument took on the name tanbur.
    The present tanbur has three strings and covers the range of one octave and two notes. The lower pair of strings, made of steel, are tuned in unison normally anywhere from a (flat) to b and are fingered together functioning as the melody strings. The top string made of copper or brass, slightly thicker, tuned in lower fourth or fifth, functions as a sympathetic string with occasional fingering by the thumb.
    The tanbur has always been considered a sacred instrument associated with the Kurdish Sufi music of Western Iran and it is believed that its repertoire is based on ancient Persian music. Up until the last fifty years this instrument was used only during djamm gatherings (devotional or liturgic ceremonies) of the Ahle-Haqq (the people of truth), followers of a particular Sufi order.

    Text by Kayhan Kalhor, Spring 1997

    Tanbur solo
    404k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]


    Tanbur & [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] 1
    317k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]


    Tanbur & [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] 2
    345k MP3[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]



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  4. #2
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    Radif




    The classical music of Iran is based on the Radif, which is a collection of old melodies that have been handed down by the masters to the students through the generations. Over time, each master's own interpretation has shaped and added new melodies to this collection, which may bear the master's name.
    The preservation of these melodies greatly depended on each successive generations' memory and mastery, since the interpretive origin of this music was expressed only through the oral tradition.
    To truly learn and absorb the essence of the Radif, many years of repetition and practice are required. A master of the Radif must internalize the Radif so completely to be able to perform any part of it at any given time.
    The Radif contains several different maqam's which are distinguished from each other by their relationship of note intervals and the form of the movement of the melodies within them. A maqam portrays a specific sonic space. A dastgah may contain approximately from 10 to 30 gousheh's (melodies). The principle gousheh's of the dastgah specify the different maqams within that dastgah. The note, upon which the gousheh is based and often is the center of the gousheh, is called the shahead. The shahead moves when we modulate between principle gousheh's, and this movement creates a new sonic space. Rhythm in these melodies takes three different forms: symmetric, asymmetric (lang), and free form. The rhythm is greatly influenced by the rhythm and meter of the Persian poetry. The instrumental and vocal Radif are different from the rhythmical point of view; however, their melodic structures are the same. The name of the different dastgah's in the Radif are on the left list, click on each dastgah to see gushehs and maghaams. and view the music sheets
    (notes).

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  6. #3
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    Complete list of all Dastgahs, Maghaams and Gushehs

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  8. #4
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    A brief mention of Iranian language should be made here. Prior to the Arab invasion of Iran (Persia), that is before 636A. D, Iranian languages were nearly pure Iranian and consisted of no foreign words whatsoever. Even though Parsi (the oficial Persian language) does contain foreign words, the words are not understood by Arabs. Parsi is not a branch of Arabic. The term „Khonyâ-ye Bâstâni” is the purely Iranian transliteration of what would translate into „Ancient Iranian Music,” that is to say, Iranian Classical Music. This Iranian term is well-understood today, but it is rarely used when compared to the more frequently used term, „Musiqi-e assil,” which would translate to about the same. Through excavated evidence, such as statuettes recovered in Susa, it can be fairly stated that music in Iran can be traced back to the days of the Elamite Empire (2,500-644B. C). Understandably, little is known of the music during this period except for the fact that various instruments, such as guitars, lutes, and flutes were created and played. Instruments, such as the „Barbat,” are said to have originated in this period, probably around 800B. C.

    During the Achaemenid Empire, that infamous „Persian Empire,” it was stated by Heredotus that music played an important role, especially in court. He mentions that music was crucial to religious ceremonies in worshiping the God, Mithra, whom was later to be accepted a „Daeva,” a false God or devil, as well
    The term „Khonyâ-ye Bâstâni Irâni” is a post-Achaemenian term. Parsi ([ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]) is a language that was spoken at court along with Pahlavi, the official language of the Sassanid Empire (224-642A. D.) and consists of most of the same words and the same grammar as Pahlavi. So the word for music during Sassanid rule and in pure Parsi today, is actually „Khonya.” Though the origins of Iran's modal music remain vague, research has revealed more than was previously known. The court musician of the Sassanid Empire, Barbod the Great, created the first ever musical system in the Middle East, known as the „Royal Khosravani,” dedicated to the king Khosrow (Chosroes). Many of the current names of the modes used in Iranian Classical Music, „[ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید],” have survived from that time by an oral tradition, though many of the modes and melodies have disappeared, probably because of Arab invaders who viewed music as immoral behavior. Post Sasanian era silver plate. ... Post Sasanian era silver plate. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... The tradition of Persian art music embodies twelve modal systems, known as dastgahs. ...

    Iranian Classical Music is [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] and is based on a series of modal scales and tunes which must be memorized. Apprentices and masters (ostad) have a traditional relationship which has declined during the 20th century as music education moved to universities and conservatoires. A repertoire of more than two hundreed series (radif) are each divided into short melodies called gusheh, which are themselves divided into twelve [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]. Each Gusheh and [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] has an individual name. A typical performance consists of a „pishdaramad” (pre-introduction), „daramad” (introduction), „tasnif” (song), „Chahar Mezrab” (rhythmic) and a chosen number of „gusheh” (movements). Unconventionally, these parts may be varied or omitted. Up untill the end of the Safavid Empire (1502-1736), complex movements in 10, 14, and 16 beats stopped being performed. Today, pieces are performed in 6 or at most 7 beats, which is unfortunate. Many melodies and modes are related to the [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] of [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] and [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] t must be made clear that the Arabs, upon their invasion of the Persian Empire, declared the lands they had conquered as their „Islamic World.” Though most Arab rulers prohibited musical activity, others ordered Persian musicians to write compositions in the form of a book which was called, in Arabic, „Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir,” meaning The Great Book of Music. Other than the influence of the Sassanid Empire, this is another reason that melodies within the classical musics of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Egypt bare some names of Iranian scales and modes. Improvisation is the act of making something up as it is performed. ... The tradition of Persian art music embodies twelve modal systems, known as dastgahs. ... The tradition of Persian art music embodies twelve modal systems, known as dastgahs. ... In Arab music a maqam [sic] (plural maqamat) is, a technique of improvisation that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music and which is unique to Arabian art music. ... Arab music is the music of Arabic-speaking people or countries, especially those centered around the Arabian Peninsula. ...

    The Classical music is vocal based. The vocalist plays a crucial role: she or he decides what mood to express and which [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] relates to that mood. The vocalist is also responsable, in many cases, for choosing the poems to be sung. If the performance requires a singer, the singer is accompanied by at least one wind or string instrument, and at least one type of percussion. There could be an ensemble of instruments, though the primary vocalist must maintain hers or his role. At times, the musicians may accompany the singer by singing along several verses. Traditionally, music is performed while seated on finely decorated cusions and rugs. Candles are sometimes lit. The group of musicians and the vocalist decide on which [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] and which of their gushehs to perform, depending on the mood of a certain time or situation. The tradition of Persian art music embodies twelve modal systems, known as dastgahs. ... The tradition of Persian art music embodies twelve modal systems, known as dastgahs. ...
    Before the Arab invasion, the melodies in which recitals from the „Avesta,” the sacred book of the Mazdean religion of Prophet Zoroaster (world's first Prophet of Monotheistic religion) were chanted or sung, were fited into those modes (visit [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]for more details on this in Persian). The term „gah” has two meanings: in the Pahlavi language, it means both „gath” (a prayer from the Avesta) and also „time.” The modes „yekgah, dogah, segah chahargah, panjgah, sheshgah, and haftgah” were used to recite gaths one through seven. Recently, it was discovered that the mode „rast” (lit. truth) was used while singing stories of truthful acts or people and „shekasteh” (lit. broken) was used in telling stories of evil doers. The mode „homayoun” was used while reciting morning prayers. Most of these modes, except probably for „sheshgah” and „haftgah” still exist in the system today. Despite this evidence, musicians still tend to attribute the meaning of „gah” strictly to „time” or „place” in regards to movements on an instrument. When Islam became the dominant religion of Iran, rulers decided to either ban music or to later discourage people from the recital of Mazdean prayers in those modes. Classical music was performed strictly in court up until the 20th century. It was performed in secret during the rule of Islamic extremists of medieval era. It is important to say that a few movements are probably not ancient, but very old. Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB) Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ... Download high resolution version (700x683, 484 KB) Picture of painting from Hasht-Behesht Palace (Palace of the 8 heavens) , Isfahan, Iran, dated 1669. ...

    Iranian Classical Music continues to function as a spiritual tool as it has throughout its history, and much less of a recreational activity. Compositions can vary immensely from start to finish, usually alternating between low, contemplative pieces and athletic displays of musicianship called tahrir. The incorporation of religious texts as lyrics were replaced by lyrics largely written by Medieval, Sufi poets especially [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] and [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]. Khwajeh Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Shirazi (also spelled Hafiz) (خواجه شمس‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی in Persian) was a Persian mystic and poet. ... Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (also known as Mowlavi or Moulana, meaning my guide in Iran, Central and South Asia or Mevlana meaning our guide in Turkey) (September 30, 1207 - December 17, 1273 CE) was a Persian poet and Sufi mystic, who was...

    Instruments used in Persian classical music include the bowed spike-fiddle [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید], the goblet drum [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید], the end-blown flute [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید], the frame drum [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید], the long-necked lutes [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید], [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید], [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید], [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید], and the dulcimer [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]. Harps, „chang[s],” were a very important part of music up until the middle of the Safavid Empire. They were most-likely replaced by the piano which was introduced by the West during the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. Many, if not most, of these instruments inspired the creation of instruments of other Middle Eastern Countries. Perhaps the most loved string instrument is the [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]. Tar players are highly chosen to function as the primary string instrument in a performance. The [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید] is also very loved for its delicacy and is the favorite among Mystic musicians. Some instruments like the sorna, neyanban, dohol, gheichak, and others, are no longer used in the Classical repertoire as they were during the Sassanid era yet they have maintained their place in Iranian Folk Music, another ancient tradition. The instruments used in the Classical field are also used in Iranian Folk Music. The kamancheh or kamānche (کمانچه - violinette) is a Persian instrument similar to a violin. ... The Goblet drum is a goblet or hour-glass shaped hand drum used in Arab music, Persian music, Balkan music and Turkish music. ... Woman playing the ney in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 The ney (also nai, nye, nay) is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music--in some of these musical traditions, it is the only wind instrument used. ... A Persian woman playing a frame drum, from a painting on the walls of Chehel-sotoon palace, Isfahan, 17th century, Iran. ... Iranian Tar Woman playing the tar in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 Iranian Tar The tar is a long-necked, waisted lute found in Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and other areas near the Caucasus region. ... Setar Setar Azerbaijani The setar is an Iranian musical instrument and means three strings in Persian. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The dutar (Also dotar or doutar) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Central Asia. ... The santur (سَنتور) is a hammered dulcimer of Persia. ... Iranian Tar Woman playing the tar in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 Iranian Tar The tar is a long-necked, waisted lute found in Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and other areas near the Caucasus region. ... Setar Setar Azerbaijani The setar is an Iranian musical instrument and means three strings in Persian. ...
    as several other idols, after the religion of Prophet Zoroaster became more and more accepted

    Major instruments

    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    • [ میهمان گرامی برای مشاهده لینک ها نیاز به ثبت نام دارید]
    A Persian woman playing a frame drum, from a painting on the walls of Chehel-sotoon palace, Isfahan, 17th century, Iran. ... The santur (سَنتور) is a hammered dulcimer of Persia. ... Setar Setar Azerbaijani The setar is an Iranian musical instrument and means three strings in Persian. ... Iranian Tar Woman playing the tar in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 Iranian Tar The tar is a long-necked, waisted lute found in Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and other areas near the Caucasus region. ... Woman playing the ney in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 The ney (also nai, nye, nay) is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music--in some of these musical traditions, it is the only wind instrument used. ... The kamancheh or kamānche (کمانچه - violinette) is a Persian instrument similar to a violin. ... The Goblet drum is a goblet or hour-glass shaped hand drum used in Arab music, Persian music, Balkan music and Turkish music. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The dutar (Also dotar or doutar) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Central Asia. ... // History The barbat is an ancient musical instrument of Persian origin, refined during the Arab age into the current form, called the oud. ...
    Reference

    • Sakata, Lorraine (1983). Music in the Mind, The Concepts of Music and Musicians in Afghanistan. Kent: Kent State University Press.

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